As scientists will often claim something to be millions or billions of years old ages that do not conform to the Biblical account of the age of the earth , Christians are often left wondering about the accuracy of the carbon method. Carbon is an unstable, radioactive isotope of carbon As with any radioactive isotope, carbon decays over time. The half-life of carbon 14 is approximate 5, years. That means if you took one pound of percent carbon , in 5, years, you would only have half a pound left. Carbon is created in the upper atmosphere as nitrogen atoms are bombarded by cosmic radiation. For every one trillion carbon atoms, you will find one carbon atoms. The carbon that results from the reaction caused by cosmic radiation quickly changes to carbon dioxide, just like normal carbon would. The carbon dioxide is utilized by plants in the same way normal carbon dioxide is.
Public Opinion Introduction The television, newspapers, and textbooks commonly proclaim, as though it were proven fact, that the earth is 4 to 5 billion years old. What is not commonly taught is how the scientists determined that age. What assumptions did they make? What evidence did they use?
Long ages is not evolution. Whether or not scientific dating methods are accurate has nothing to do with whether evolutionary theories work. However, in this article, we will learn that the time dating methods, which appear to stretch out the past to great lengths, are amazingly unreliable. Magical time.
Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago. It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present.
If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking. One must get past the arguments ad populum that its popularity counts for something , ad hominem that if you attack the person making the argument, this counts for something , and especially ad baculum that there are people who have the clout to decree it as true , to ask the key questions and challenge the unsubstantiated assumptions and thinking of those who would hold to the evolution position.
Today there are an increasing number of anti-creationist authors who are producing books and periodicals that make this relatively brief presentation insufficient to deal with all the points in dispute. Those defending creation today who don’t have the time to devote their life’s study to gaining expertise in all fields of inquiry must principally be prepared to think critically, logically, and challenge unsubstantiated assumptions made by these people.
They must also keep a level head in the face of some vicious attacks and diatribes that will be directed against them, as is advised in the scriptures 1 Peter 3: By way of definitions, I want to point out that when I speak of “evolution,” I am referring to the popular contemporary use of the word, which in a nutshell is the belief that all life forms are related by ancestry, and that the first life form occurred spontaneously, all due to completely natural processes.
When I speak of “creation,” I am referring to the inherently obvious fact that the origin of all life forms can be attributed to a creator who purposefully created them with planning and intent, and the documented fact that this occurred over the course of a week’s time several thousand years ago. This document is not a scientific thesis, but an apologetic intended to be submitted and defended by me in an interactive, online electronic forum.
I claim no copyright on this document, and grant its use to the public domain. I have not written it with a view towards receiving any sort of financial or other personal gain, and I request that others utilizing this document do likewise.
Under the current taxonomy based on genetic rather than behavioral criteria , the term “hominid” refers to members of the biological human family Hominidae: The chart at right shows the evolutionary chronology inputed to these biological branches. Ardipithecus, the common primate ancestor to paranthropines, australopithecines and humans, went extinct about 4 million years ago. Human evolution is a puzzle made up of thousands of fossil pieces.
The Chart of Human Evolution below shows the major pieces of that puzzle arranged in a likely solution. The tentative connections between species or time of extinction, indicated by a “?
“For the first time in human history,” writes Weigel, “dating made it necessary to buy things in order to get face time with a prospective partner. This remains true today.” 5.
The online countdown clock races toward zero. Dramatic music with a heavy bass line begins to play. Hashtags sprout in Twitterspace: The epic Braveheart-Lord-of-the-Rings-style soundtrack intensifies. Only thing missing is a sweeping camera pan over the horizon as Frodo travels on toward Mount Doom. Ham and his PR team are firing away tweet after tweet about the debate and its importance. Nye, meanwhile, has tweeted about it only once.
Acknowledgements Introduction his document discusses the way radiometric dating and stratigraphic principles are used to establish the conventional geological time scale. It is not about the theory behind radiometric dating methods, it is about their application, and it therefore assumes the reader has some familiarity with the technique already refer to “Other Sources” for more information. As an example of how they are used, radiometric dates from geologically simple, fossiliferous Cretaceous rocks in western North America are compared to the geological time scale.
To get to that point, there is also a historical discussion and description of non-radiometric dating methods. A common form of criticism is to cite geologically complicated situations where the application of radiometric dating is very challenging. These are often characterised as the norm, rather than the exception.
Carbon Dating Gets a evolution. Human evolution is the lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors. Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million has been a lot of changes in the world of dating in the past 10 .
Stanislaus , the oldest Polish Catholic church in the U. In , more than kids from the church had held a parade in honor of Billy Gawronski, who had just returned from two years aboard the first American expedition to Antarctica, helmed by naval officer Richard E. The teenager had joined the expedition in a most unusual way: Intrigued by Billy’s persistence and pluck, Shapiro dove into the public records and newspaper archives to learn more about him.
She created an Excel spreadsheet of Gawronskis all along the East Coast and began cold-calling them. She got “a lot of hang-ups. Billy had died in , leaving behind a treasure trove of mementos, including scrapbooks, notebooks, yearbooks, and hundreds of photos. These materials became the basis of Shapiro’s new book The Stowaway: It’s a rollicking good read full of fascinating history and bold characters that takes readers from New York to Tahiti, New Zealand to Antarctica, and back to New York again.
My friends call me Ape Jaw Evan. Click here to read about me and other media myths, frauds, and lies. The Theory of Evolution is not a scientific law or a law of biology.
Creation and Evolution: Time; Dating; Age of Things. The core issue in the entire battle has to do with time, dating, the age of things. Evolution follows the principle of time plus chance equals everything.
The Evidence for Evolution: Biogeography This site explains how the biogeography of organisms, which keeps closely related species in fairly close proximity, provides further evidence for evolution. The role of plate tectonics in determining geographic locations of organisms is also discussed. Hosted by Nova Southeastern University. External Link Evidence for Evolution Biodiversity is a Guarantee of Evolution This transcript of an interview with Nobel Prize-winning microbiologist Werner Arber reveals his opinions about the origins of biodiversity and its evolutionary and ecological consequences.
Other Resources Evidence for Evolution Biogeography This college-level text provides a thorough introduction to the principles of biogeography, and includes the original map of zoogeographic regions drawn by Alfred Russel Wallace. Brown and Mark V. Other Resources Evidence for Evolution Crowding Innovation out of Evolution This “Research News” article examines the theory that evolution produces some threshold level of biodiversity and then diversification levels off as all the available “ecospace” gets filled.
Kerr [Science A Biogeographic Approach This analysis shows how biogeographical and geophysical studies can inform each other, using the breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia during the early Cambrian as a case in point.
This is due to New Zealand’s modern position on the boundary of the Australian and the Pacific Plates. The collision of these plates caused the Pacific plate to subduct underneath the Australian plate which carries the North Island. To the south of the South Island, the situation is reversed. The subduction zones in New Zealand are defined by trenches in the north and in the south and by the Alpine Fault which connects the two.
This plate boundary has shaped the size of New Zealand and also defines its geology.
Dating Agencies have been around longer than most people would probably imagine. So long in fact, that we’d need to go all the way back to the 16century when courting was rooted in the era of.
So suggests new research that tracked changes in two genes thought to help regulate brain growth, changes that appeared well after the rise of modern humans , years ago. That the defining feature of humans — our large brains — continued to evolve as recently as 5, years ago, and may be doing so today, promises to surprise the average person, if not biologists. Lahn and colleagues examined two genes, named microcephalin and ASPM, that are connected to brain size. If those genes don’t work, babies are born with severely small brains, called microcephaly.
Using DNA samples from ethnically diverse populations, they identified a collection of variations in each gene that occurred with unusually high frequency. In fact, the variations were so common they couldn’t be accidental mutations but instead were probably due to natural selection, where genetic changes that are favorable to a species quickly gain a foothold and begin to spread, the researchers report.
Lahn offers an analogy: Medieval monks would copy manuscripts and each copy would inevitably contain errors — accidental mutations. Years later, a ruler declares one of those copies the definitive manuscript, and a rush is on to make many copies of that version — so whatever changes from the original are in this presumed important copy become widely disseminated.
Human timeline and Nature timeline Viruses are ancient. Studies at the molecular level have revealed relationships between viruses infecting organisms from each of the three domains of life and viral proteins that pre-date the divergence of life and thus the last universal common ancestor. This is the idea that viruses could have evolved from complex molecules of protein and nucleic acid before cells first appeared on earth.
Isotopes, Radiometric Dating and the Geologic Time Scale: A short but clear explanation about radioactive isotopes commonly used for determining ages of rocks (with graphics) and putting numbers on the geologic time scale, extending it back before the occurance of abundant index fossils.
Human Evolution Evidence Evidence of Evolution Scientists have discovered a wealth of evidence concerning human evolution , and this evidence comes in many forms. Thousands of human fossils enable researchers and students to study the changes that occurred in brain and body size, locomotion, diet, and other aspects regarding the way of life of early human species over the past 6 million years. Millions of stone tools, figurines and paintings, footprints, and other traces of human behavior in the prehistoric record tell about where and how early humans lived and when certain technological innovations were invented.
Study of human genetics show how closely related we are to other primates — in fact, how connected we are with all other organisms — and can indicate the prehistoric migrations of our species, Homo sapiens, all over the world. Advances in the dating of fossils and artifacts help determine the age of those remains, which contributes to the big picture of when different milestones in becoming human evolved. Exciting scientific discoveries continually add to the broader and deeper public knowledge of human evolution.
January Fossils provide a record of the history of life. Smith is known as the Father of English Geology. Our understanding of the shape and pattern of the history of life depends on the accuracy of fossils and dating methods. Some critics, particularly religious fundamentalists, argue that neither fossils nor dating can be trusted, and that their interpretations are better. Other critics, perhaps more familiar with the data, question certain aspects of the quality of the fossil record and of its dating.
Darwin and Wallace proposed that evolution occurs because a heritable trait that increases an individual’s chance of successfully reproducing will become more common, by inheritance, from one generation to the next, and likewise a heritable trait that decreases an individual’s chance of reproducing will become rarer. In the s, scientists combined Darwinian natural selection with the re-discovered theory of Mendelian heredity to create the modern synthesis , which is the prevailing paradigm of evolutionary theory.
Alfred Russel Wallace Evolutionary theory As broadly and commonly defined in the scientific community, the term evolution connotes heritable changes in populations of organisms over time, or changes in the frequencies of alleles over time. A popular definition along these lines is that offered by Douglas J. Futuyma in Evolutionary Biology: The changes in populations that are considered evolutionary are those that are inheritable via the genetic material from one generation to another.
However, there are two very important and popular evolutionary theories that address the pattern and process of evolution: Theory of descent with modification The"theory of descent with modification” is the major kinematic theory that deals with the pattern of evolution—that is, it treats non-causal relations between ancestral and descendant species , orders, phyla, and so forth. The theory of descent with modification, also called the"theory of common descent,” essentially postulates that all organisms have descended from common ancestors by a continuous process of branching.
In other words, narrowly defined, all life evolved from one kind of organism or from a few simple kinds, and each species arose in a single geographic location from another species that preceded it in time.
By Lily Rothman November 24, The Australopithecus has been around for a while now—and so has our knowledge of that human ancestor. One of those big discoveries was the famous skeleton known as Lucy, who was found on this day, Nov. Two years later their team made an even more dramatic discovery. Not far from their first find, they [later] uncovered the fossilized remnants of a year-old female Australopithecus lying in a layer of sediment 3 million years old.
Unlike most other fossils of early man —a tooth here, a bone fragment there, occasionally a portion of a skull—this one comprised a good part of the skeleton. But the find left no doubts that she walked erect.
Beginning in the s, dating websites revolutionized the process in unprecedented ways, removing logistical boundaries of geography and time commitments. Fundamentally, the system subverted the traditional approach to romance.
Can you observe evolution happening? Because for many species, humans included, evolution happens over the course of many thousands of years, it is rare to observe the process in a human lifetime. Usually only laboratory scientists studying quickly reproducing life forms, like single-celled creatures and some invertebrates, have the opportunity to see evolutionary change happen before their eyes. All of us can and do experience the indirect effects of evolution nearly every day, however.
One of the more important evolutionary concerns facing humans today is the emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbes. A battle against bacteria that we have been winning with medicine for the last 50 years or so is now an even race, according to some scientists — because of the rapid rate of bacterial evolution.